In Exmark Manufacturing Company v. Briggs & Stratton Power Products, 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS 783 (Fed. Cir. 2018), the Federal Court of Appeals addressed patent infringement damages based on a reasonable royalty. Exmark Manufacturing Company owned a patent for a lawn mower with an improved flow control baffle (the part that controls the flow of air and cut grass underneath the mower). Exmark sued Briggs & Stratton Power Products for patent infringement. The jury returned a verdict of infringement against Briggs and found the infringement willful. The jury awarded Exmark $24 million in damages. The district court doubled the amount of damages for willfulness.
Briggs appealled to the Federal Circuit on multiple grounds, including the district court’s denial of Briggs’ motion for a new trial on damages.
Damages for patent infringement can be determined in several ways. At a minimum, a successful plaintiff is entitled to a reasonable royalty for the defendant’s sale of the invention. The royalty is calculated by multiplying a royalty rate by the royalty base (the defendant’s sales of the infringing invention). However, if the patent only covers a component of the product that the defendant has sold, the plaintiff must apportion damages between the patented component and the whole product. The plaintiff is only entitled to a reasonable royalty on the patented component, not on the whole product.
On appeal, Briggs contended that Exmark’s expert should have determined damages by apportioning the royalty base, not the royalty rate. The appellate court rejected Briggs’ argument and held that damages can be apportioned by apportioning the royalty rate, apportioning the royalty base, or a combination of the two.
The court stated, at *29:
“So long as Exmark adequately and reliably apportions between the improved in conventional features of the accused mower, using the accused mower as a royalty base and apportioning through the royalty rate is an acceptable methodology….The essential requirement is that the ultimate reasonable royalty award must be based on the incremental value that the patented invention adds to the end product.”
The court explained that apportioning damages using the sales revenue from the lawn mower was proper for two reasons. First, Exmark’s patent included claims to the mower as a whole, not just the component baffle. Second, parties who negotiate licenses often use sales revenue for the whole product as the royalty base for a patented component. Id. at *29-31.
Briggs also argued on appeal that Exmark’s damage number was not admissible because its expert did not connect the royalty rate to the facts of the case. The Federal Circuit agreed with Briggs and held the district court’s denial of Briggs’ motion for a new trial on damages was an abuse of discretion. Id. at *31.
The court found that Exmark’s expert’s use of 5% as the royalty rate was not connected to the evidence in the case. Under Georgia-Pacific Corp. v. U.S. Plywood Corp., 318 F. Supp. 1116 (S.D.N.Y. 1970), several specific factors may be considered in determining damages for patent infringement based on a reasonable royalty. These factors are referred to as the “Georgia-Pacific factors.” Exmark’s expert had analyzed certain of the Georgia-Pacific factors (including the advantages of the patented baffle to customers) and had determined that, in a hypothetical licensing negotiation, the parties would have agreed to a 5% royalty rate on the sales of the lawn mower. The expert did not tie the Georgia-Pacific factors to the 5% rate. Because the court held that Exmark’s expert had not connected the 5% rate to the Georgia-Pacific factors or the facts of the case, the expert’s opinion was inadmissible. The court remanded the case for a new trial on damages.
Some commentators believe that the Exmark court’s decision may increase plaintiffs’ ability to argue that a reasonable royalty should be based on the sales revenue from the whole product, not just the patented component. The court clearly held that apportioning damages between the whole product and the patented component can be accomplished by using the sales revenue for the whole product and apportioning the royalty rate. However, because the court rejected Exmark’s 5% royalty rate as not connected to the facts of the case, the court’s decision is also a warning that if a plaintiff chooses to use the sales revenue from the whole product and apportion with the royalty rate, they must clearly tie the royalty rate to the facts of the case.
Given this decision, it is likely that in the future, plaintiffs will use the sales revenue from the whole product, as it will be a larger amount than the sales revenue from the patented component, and apportion with the royalty rate.